Thursday, 20 July 2017

Seismic Zones

Earthquake - prone areas of the country have been identified on the basis of scientific inputs relating to seismicity, earthquakes occurred in the past and tectonic setup of the region. Based on these inputs, Bureau of Indian Standards [IS 1893 (Part I):2002], has grouped the country into four seismic zones, viz. Zone II, III, IV and V. Of these, Zone V is seismically the most active region, while zone II is the least. Broadly, Zone - V comprises entire northeastern India, parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, part of North Bihar and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Zone - IV covers remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, Sikkim, Northern Parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the west coast and Rajasthan. Zone – III comprises Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep islands, remaining parts of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and West Bengal, Parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. Zone - II covers remaining parts of country.

            A list of important cities falling in various seismic zones, has also been prepared by BIS and is given below:-

Town
State/UT
Zone
Town
State/UT
Zone
Agra   
Utter Pradesh
III
Chitradurga
Karnataka
II
Ahmedabad
Gujarat
III
Coimbatore
Tamil nadu
III
Ajmer
Rajasthan
II
Cuddalore
Tamil Nadu
III
Allahabad
Utter Pradesh
II
Cuttack
Orissa
III
Almora
Uttrakhand
IV
Darbhanga
Bihar
V
Ambala
Haryana
IV
Darjeeling
West Bengal
IV
Amritsar
Punjab
IV
Dharwad
Karnataka
III
Asansol
West Bengal
III
Dehradun
Uttrakhand
IV
Aurangabad
Maharastha
II
Dharmpuri
Tamil Nadu
III
Baharich
Utter Pradesh
IV
Delhi
Delhi
IV
Bangalore
Karnataka
II
Durgapur
West Bengal
III
Barauni
Bihar
IV
Gangtok
Sikkim
IV
Bareilly
Utter Pradesh
III
Guwahati
Assam
V
Belgaum
Karnataka
III
Goa
Goa
III
Bhatinda
Punjab
III
Gulbarga
Karnataka
II
Bhilai
Chattiagarh
II
Gaya
Bihar
III
Bhopal
Madhya Pradesh
II
Gorakhpur
Utter Pradesh
IV
Bhubaneswar
Orissa
III
Hyderabad
Andhra Pradesh
II
Bhuj
Gujarat
V
Imphal
Manipur
V
Bijapur
Karnataka
III
Jabalpur
Madhya Pradesh
III
Bikaner
Rajasthan
III
Jaipur
Rajasthan
II
Bokaro
Jharkhand
III
Jamshedpur
Jharkhand
II
Bulandshahr
Utter Pradesh
IV
Jhansi
Utter Pradesh
II
Burdwan
West Bengal
III
Jodhpur
Rajasthan
II
Cailcut
Kerala
III
Jorhat
Assam
V
Chandigarh
Chandigarh
IV
Kakrapara
Gujarat
III
Chennai
Tamil Nadu
III
Kalapakkam
Tamil Nadu
III
Kanchipuram
Tamil Nadu
III
Pondicherry
Pondicherry
II
Kanpur
Utter Pradesh
III
Pune
Maharastha
III
Karwar
Karnataka
III
Raipur
Chattisgarh
II
Kohima
Nagaland
V
Rajkot
Gujarat
III
Kolkata
West Bengal
III
Ranchi
Chattisgarh
II
Kota
Rajasthan
II
Roorkee
Uttrakhand
IV
Kurnool
Andhra Pradesh
II
Rourkela
Orissa
II
Lucknow
Utter Pradesh
III
Sadiya
Assam
V
Ludhiyana
Punjab
IV
Salem
Tamil Nadu
III
Madurai
Tamil Nadu
II
Simla
Himanchal Pradesh
IV
Mandi
Himanchal Pradesh
V
Sironj
Madhya Pradesh
II
Mangalore
Karnataka
III
Solapur
Maharastha
III
Monghyr
Bihar
IV
Srinagar
Jammu & Kashmir
V
Moradabad
Utter Pradesh
IV
Surat
Gujarat
III
Mumbai
Maharastha
III
Tarapur
Maharastha
III
Mysore
Karnataka
II
Tezpur
Assam
V
Nagpur
Maharastha
II
Thane
Maharastha
III
Nagarjunasagar
Andhra Pradesh
II
Thanjavur
Tamil Nadu
II
Nainital
Uttrakhand
IV
Thiruvananthapuram
Kerala
III
Nasik
Maharastha
III
Tiruchirappali
Tamil Nadu
II
Nellore
Andhra Pradesh
III
Tiruvennamalai
Tamil Nadu
III
Osmanabad
Maharastha
III
Udaipur
Rajasthan
II
Panjim
Goa
III
Vadodara
Gujarat
III
Patiala
Punjab
III
Varanasi
Utter Pradesh
III
Patna
Bihar
IV
Vellore
Andhra Pradesh
III
Pilibhit
Uttrakhand
IV
Vijayawada
Andhra Pradesh
III



Vishakhapatnam
Andhra Pradesh
II

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has published criterion for construction of earthquake resistant structures. Buildings are now being made earthquake resistant.

BIS has prepared guidelines for retrofitting in existing structures. A list of code books on construction practices of buildings and structures, to minimize the earthquake losses, is available. In addition to this, Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) & Building Materials & Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) have also published guidelines and brochures for construction and retrofitting of buildings. These guidelines are in wide circulation amongst the public and the administrative authorities responsible for the design and construction of earthquake resistant structures in earthquake prone areas.

Loss of life and damage of property due to earthquakes could be considerably reduced through proper planning and implementation of pre- and post-disaster preparedness and management strategies by respective State and Central Government agencies in a coordinated manner following the above mentioned guidelines. These studies involving preparation of geological, geomorphologic and land use maps followed by drilling, geological logging, standard penetration test and geophysical studies to demarcate the zones of least to most damage prone areas within the urban areas so as to helps the respective town and country planning agencies to formulate perspective planning within the overall earthquake impact minimization efforts. Based on the above steps it is mandatory for all infrastructure/building/ development agencies (Public and Private) to design appropriate earthquake resistant building plans based on the relevant BIS Codes and other guidelines of BMTPC, HUDCO and NDMA for across the country.

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Ministry of Earth Sciences and other state Disaster Management Authorities, have also taken up various initiatives to educate and enhance awareness amongst general public and school children on the general aspects of earthquakes, their impacts and measures to mitigate losses caused by them. A National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is also functional under the general superintendence, direction and control of the NDMA for the purpose of specialized response to natural and man-made disasters.

This information was given by Minister of State for Ministry of Science & Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences Shri Y.S.Chowdary in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha today (July 19, 2017). 


Courtesy: pib.nic.in

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